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This page describes GitLab, which is a software for Git repository management and software development that can run on your own server. GitLab also offers a hosted online service at


GitLab is Open Source and offers Git repository management, code reviews, issue tracking, activity feeds and wikis.


Major GitLab features are depicted in this article on

Some highlights:

  • User management.
  • SSH key management for accessing a repo via SSH and mapping to GUI user.
  • Repository/project permissions (private, protected or public). Users and groups.
  • View commits.
  • Comments.
  • Issue tracking.
  • Markdown support.
  • Branches and tags can be created in GUI.
  • Merge requests. Code review.
  • New files can be created and in the GUI.
  • Files can be edited in the GUI.
  • A wiki per project (in separate Git repo).
  • Notifications.
  • Visualization of commits, branches, etc.


  • Issues (tickets) can only be created on project level. Issue are passed from bottom to down (project -> subgroup -> group). The higher the level, the more issues are gathered and shown in issue boards.
  • Epics can only be created on subgroup and group level. Epics are passed from bottom to down (subgroup -> group). The higher the level, the more epics are gathered and shown in epic list/board and roadmaps.
  • Roadmaps are based on epics (after dates are given). Roadmaps are passed and enriched from bottom to down (subgroup -> group).
  • Permissions (members) are inherited and passed from top to bottom (group -> subgroup -> project). A permission granted on group level cannot be removed on subgroup or project level. Therefore, if we need to split permissions (e.g. for product and customer train), subgroups are needed.
  • Each group can contain multiple subgroups and each subgroup can contain multiple projects.
  • Group, subgroup and project names can be changed easily without impact on references. But paths (in URL) shall remain stable in order to keep references (merge requests, commits, links) valid. Therefore, paths shall be generic (e.g. team1, team2, ...) and short.

Access to repositories

The GitLab GUI always shows the links you need to use for accessing (cloning) the Git repositories either via HTTP or SSH.

Example URLs for project/repository:

HTTP access:

SSH access on port 22:
Note: The repo must be addressed with a absolute path (do not use ":" between hostname and pathname)

The corresponding clone commands are:

git clone
git clone ssh://


  • For HTTP you need to authenticate with your GitLab user credentials, if it's not a public repo.
  • It's recommended using SSH for accessing the repositories with a Git client.
  • The SSH connect must go directly to the host GitLab has been installed on (no proxy in between).
  • For SSH you need to always login as user git. The user mapping will be made via your SSH key(s).
  • For SSH you need to authenticate with a SSH private key matching the public key you need to register in your GitLab user profile.
  • The SSH keys must be unique. You can't add a public key to multiple user profiles. The keys are added to ~git/.ssh/authorized_keys.
  • For SSH you need to take care using the correct SSH key, e.g. just add following to ~/.ssh/config:
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa_emptypass
StrictHostKeyChecking no
UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
  • For SSH you can check the general SSH access and authentication by just connecting to the server with a native SSH client. In addition, your GitLab user mapping will be responded by the server as e.g. Welcome to GitLab, Peter Pan!. A successful connect (using SSH port forwarding) looks like:
> ssh
X11 forwarding request failed on channel 0
PTY allocation request failed on channel 0
Welcome to GitLab, Peter Pan!
Connection to closed.


See Operations for info about installing and maintaining GitLab.


See for running GitLab as Docker container.

Creating the container:

docker run --detach \
    --hostname \
    --publish 9443:9443 --publish 9080:9080 --publish 9022:22 \
    --name gitlab \
    --restart always \
    --volume /srv/gitlab/config:/etc/gitlab \
    --volume /srv/gitlab/logs:/var/log/gitlab \
    --volume /srv/gitlab/data:/var/opt/gitlab \

GitLab configuration gitlab.rb:

external_url ''

nginx['ssl_certificate']= "/etc/gitlab/ssl/fullchain.pem"
nginx['ssl_certificate_key'] = "/etc/gitlab/ssl/privkey.pem"

gitlab_rails['gitlab_shell_ssh_port'] = 9022

gitlab_rails['gitlab_email_from'] = ''
gitlab_rails['gitlab_email_display_name'] = 'GitLab'
gitlab_rails['gitlab_email_reply_to'] = ''

gitlab_rails['smtp_enable'] = true
gitlab_rails['smtp_address'] = ""
gitlab_rails['smtp_port'] = 587
gitlab_rails['smtp_user_name'] = "user"
gitlab_rails['smtp_password'] = "pass"
gitlab_rails['smtp_domain'] = ""
gitlab_rails['smtp_authentication'] = "plain"
gitlab_rails['smtp_enable_starttls_auto'] = true

Notes about running GitLab on a Docker host with Port 80, 443 and 22 already occupied:

  • GitLab must be configured to set the external ports like 9443 and/or 9080. Once you set "external_url ''", nginx will listen on port 9443.
  • Setting the SSH port
gitlab_rails['gitlab_shell_ssh_port'] = 9022
does only work when the port forwarding from Docker is e.g. 9022->22. 9022->9022 did not work for me.
  • All these HTTP/HTTPS and SSH configured are used as ports in the GitLab user interface, e.g. in the clone URL.
  • You can/should create virtual webservers on the Docker host serving port 443 and 80 and redirecting both the the external GitLab URL.
  • For TLS with Let's Encrypt see TLS.


docker stop gitlab
docker rm gitlab
docker pull gitlab/gitlab-ce:latest
docker run ...


docker logs gitlab
docker exec -it gitlab bash





The GitLab GUI has an excellent online help available at

Agile Project/Product Management


# Details

# Customer information
* Client reported the bug:

# Workflow

Please mark the checks if the corresponding step is __finished__.

- [ ] Bug can be reproduced :frame_photo:
- [ ] Shipment :cruise_ship:
    - [ ] Yes, the feature can be shipped automatically (continuous delivery)
    - [ ] No, we need to align date of shipment 
- [ ] Approved :vertical_traffic_light:

## Additional information
* Effort Estimation (in PT): _please add estimated duration using a [quick action](
* Is a date of shipment communicated to the client (yes|no)?
  - If yes, which date:

/label ~"bug"

Issue Boards

Issue boards are controlled by labels. Board can be created by project/repo and also on group level.

A feature board respective product backlog with a workflow for requirement engineering could look like:

  • backlog
  • new requirement
  • business analysis
  • technical analysis
  • ready for development
  • in progress
  • in qa
  • ready for production
  • on production
  • closed

This feature boards looks like following:

Feature Board Part 1
Feature Board Part 2


User Story

See also


Alerts und Incidents

  • Alerts werden per Schnittstelle erzeugt
  • Beispiel
TIMESTAMP=$(date +%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%z)
FINGERPRINT=$(date +%s)
curl --request POST \
  --data '{"title": "Test Alert", "description": "Short description of the alert", "start_time": "'$TIMESTAMP'", "service": "My little service", "monitoring_tool": "Icinga", "hosts": "server", "severity": "medium", "fingerprint": "'$FINGERPRINT'"}' \
  --header "Authorization: Bearer <key>" \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
Achtung: "fingerprint" muss unique sein, sonst wird kein neuer Alert/Issue erzeugt (z.B. als UUID um wiederkehrende Alert erkennen, Anzahl "Events" wird sonst hochgezählt). "key" wird aus den GitLab-Einstellungen für den Aufruf der Schnittstelle übernommen.
  • Incidents können automatisch aus Alerts erzeugt werden (Einstellungen, Template möglich) oder manuell aus einem Alert in der GitLab GUI erstellt werden.
  • Incidents sind eine bestimmte Art von Issues mit anderen Detail-Infos (z.B. Severity).
  • Incidents haben einen Tag "incident"

Docker Registry

  • Aufräumen:
gitlab-ctl registry-garbage-collect

GitLab Pages

In combination with other tools (e.g. markdown converter, CMS):


gitlab-ctl tail gitlab-pages

GitLab Wiki

Move / Migrate / Import a GitLab wiki


Literature and Tutorials


  • RequestBin
    • Testen von HTTP Requests, z.B. für den Empfang von Webhooks bei Git/GitLab.
    • Siehe "GitLab Cookbook" S.113 - Using webhooks.
    • RequestBin gives you a URL that will collect requests made to it and let you inspect them in a human-friendly way. Use RequestBin to see what your HTTP client is sending or to inspect and debug webhook requests.
  • Postman
    • REST Client, Testen von APIs
    • Chrome Browser Extension
    • Sendet HTTP Request zu einem Server, auch mit Parameter/Value Variablen von simulierten Formularen
    • Siehe "GitLab Cookbook" S.121 - Managing your projects via the API.


  • "." öffnet Web IDE im jeweiligen Kontext


GitLab official sites:


Additional components:


Other resources:

Using under openSUSE:


Continuous Integration (CI/CD):

Serverless / FaaS:

Cloud / GitOps:

Release Strategy:

Agile Software Development:







See also